Cross Site Scripting
Cross site scripting (or XSS) is #2 on the 2010 OWASP Top Ten web security risks and it pops up nearly everywhere.
In Rails 2.x, values need to be explicitly escaped (e.g., by using the
h method). In Rails 3.x, auto-escaping in views is enabled by default. However, one can still use the
raw method to output a value directly.
See the Ruby Security Guide for more details.
Query Parameters and Cookies
Rails 2.x example in ERB:
<%= params[:query] %>
Brakeman looks for several situations that can allow XSS. The simplest is like the example above: a value from the
cookies is being directly output to a view. In such cases, it will issue a warning like:
Unescaped parameter value near line 3: params[:query]
By default, Brakeman will also warn when a parameter or cookie value is used as an argument to a method, the result of which is output unescaped to a view.
<%= some_method(cookie[:name]) %>
This raises a warning like:
Unescaped cookie value near line 5: some_method(cookies[:oreo])
However, the confidence level for this warning will be weak, because it is not directly outputting the cookie value.
Some methods are known to Brakeman to either be dangerous (
link_to is one) or safe (
escape_once). Users can specify safe methods using the
--safe-methods option. Alternatively, Brakeman can be set to only warn when values are used directly with the
Because (many) models come from database values, Brakeman mistrusts them by default.
For example, if
@user is an instance of a model set in an action like
def set_user @user = User.first end
and there is a view with
<%= @user.name %>
Brakeman will raise a warning like
Unescaped model attribute near line 3: User.first.name
If you trust all your data (although you probably shouldn’t), this can be disabled with
Back to Warning Types